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Occupational Issues & Infectious Diseases

Exposure in the work environment. This table will give you the probability of acquiring of these three diseases. However, there are several other infectious disease that are not listed; but just as potentially infectious that can be acquired in the work arena.

Exposure type

HIV

HCV

HBV

infect/exp*

% rate (95% CI)

infect/exp*

% rate (95% CI)

infect/exp*

% rate (95% CI)

Percutaneous

3/2125

0.14 (0.03-0.41)

12/3076

0.39 (0.20-0.68)

0/878

0 (0-0.42)

by hollow-bore needle

2/1434

0.14 (0.02-0.52)

12/1955

0.61 (0.31-1.07)

0/507

0 (0-0.72)

- blood-filled

2/962

0.21 (0.03-0.75)

11/1301

0.85 (0.42-1.51)

0/323

0 (0-1.14)

- non blood-filled

0/344

0 (0-1.07)

1/631

0.16 (0.006-0.88)

0/173

0 (0-2.11)

by other sharp or solid needle

1/470

0.21 (0.06-1.18)

0/987

0 (0-0.37)

0/371

0 (0-0.99)

Mucous contamination

2/468

0.43 (0.05-1.53)

2/557

0.36 (0.04-1.29)

0/181

0 (0-2.02)

Non-intact skin contamination

0/573

0 (0-0.64)

0/473

0 (0-0.78)

0/96

0 (0-3.77)

 

This is a table of frequency rates provided by CDC: Crude Frequency of Potential Sources for Acquiring Viral Hepatitis and Other Characteristics, 1993 (Report Number 56 -- Issued April 1996, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)

Characteristics

Hep A

Hep B

Non-A, Non-B

Rank

Potential Frequency Sources

Acupuncture

0.5%

0.5%

0.5%

17

0.48%

Blood transfusion

0.4%

1.0%

2.4%

15

1.22%

Child/employee in daycare center

6.8%

1.6%

1.7%

12

3.23%

Contact of daycare child/employee

10.9%

4.7%

5.0%

6

6.59%

Dental work

11.1%

15.5%

16.8%

1

13.89%

Hemodialysis-associated

0.9%

1.2%

1.5%

16

1.15%

Homosexual activity

3.6%

6.9%

3.5%

8

4.48%

Injection Drug Use

3.7%

10.5%

23%

4

11.90%

International travel

8.4%

3.2%

2.4%

9

4.48%

Medical/dental employment

3.7%

3.5%

4.0%

11

3.58%

Multiple sex partners

4.9%

20.2%

12.5%

3

12.03%

Other percutaneous exposures

0.9%

3.2%

2.7%

13

2.17%

Personal contact with patient-Hep A

33.6%

1.8%

3.5%

2

12.45%

Personal contact with patient-non A, non B hepatitis

3.8%

17.7%

13.2%

5

11.10%

Surgery

3.5%

6.6%

8.1%

7

5.82%

Suspected food borne or waterborne outbreak

4.7%

0.3%

0.6%

14

1.79%

Tattooing

1.8%

4.3%

5.7%

10

3.77%

 

ADDITIONAL ARTICLES:

Document Name & Link to Document

Description

File Size /Type**

Workers' Compensation Issues

Link to another index page like this one devoted to worker's compensations issues.

 

Direct Cost of Follow-up for Percutaneous and Mucocutaneous Exposures

Published by the International Health Care Worker Safety Center at the University of Virginia

48 kb pdf

Estimating Future Hepatitis C Morbidity, Mortality, and Cost in the United States

Objectives: This study estimated future morbidity, mortality, and the costs resulting from hepatitis C virus

133 kb pdf

Financial and Risk Considerations for Successful Disease Management Programs

Report for the insurance industry-this paper introduces disease management risk concepts in general, along with a discussion of risk and financial evaluation considerations, and a brief case study illustrating these principles.

211 kb pdf

Hazards of needlesticks-Sharp End

Needlestick injuries are up there with slips, trips and falls as one of the top accident risks in UK hospitals. Safer devices are available and would remove a possibly lethal infection hazard-so why aren’t hospitals using them?

144 kb pdf

Healthcare Exposure

Deals with poisoning and Toxicity with areas of infectious diseases that are found in the work area

471 kb pdf

Healthcare Workers and Hepatitis C

Health care workers are at occupational risk for acquiring this infection because HCV is transmitted by direct percutaneous exposure to blood. Reported in ‘American Family Physician’

223 kb pdf

Occupationally Acquired HIV: The Vulnerability of Health Care Workers under Workers ' Compensation Laws

Approximately 800 000 needle-sticks and other sharp injuries from contaminated medical devices occur in health care settings each year, of which an estimated 16000 are contaminated by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Health care workers who are Occupationally infected by HIV are at risk of being left without workers' compensation coverage. In some states, the definition of an occupational disease is so restrictive that infected health care workers are unlikely to qualify for benefits. For those who are able to meet the definition, compensation is often inadequate. Recourse is also limited by statutory provisions that preclude health care workers from bringing civil suits against their employers

 

Surveillance of Health Care Workers with HIV/AIDS

These cases represented 5.1% of the 453,462 AIDS cases reported to CDC for whom occupational information was known

42 kb pdf

HEALTH CARE WORKERS AND HEPATITIS C VIRUS

Health care workers are at occupational risk for acquiring this infection because HCV is transmitted by direct percutaneous exposure to blood. The CDC recommends that individual health care institutions consider establishing policies and procedures for follow-up of infection with HCV after percutaneous or permucosal exposures to blood.

 

HEPATITIS SURVEILLANCE

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is most efficiently transmitted by large or repeated percutaneous exposures to blood, such as through the transfusion of blood or blood products from infectious donors and sharing of contaminated needles among injection drug users. Other bloodborne viruses, such as the hepatitis B virus (HBV), are transmitted not only by overt percutaneous exposures, but by mucous membrane and in apparent parenteral exposures. Although these types of exposures are prevalent among health-care workers, the risk factors for HCV transmission in this occupational setting are not well-defined.

 

Actuarial Aspects of Dread Disease Products

Dread Disease/Critical Illness insurance has attracted much attention because it differs significantly from other life products in that the benefit is paid upon occurrence of a specific disease rather upon death

526 kb pdf

NEEDLE STICK RISK

Hundreds of medical workers become infected with the AIDS or hepatitis viruses from accidental punctures each year.

 

HEALTHCARE WORKERS SORE OVER NEEDLES FDA WON’T BAN KIND THAT CAUSE MOST NJURIES

A nursing safety expert asked how many hundreds of medical workers need to die from contaminated needle sticks before the agency bans standard needles and syringes that are causing the injuries

 

Needlestick prevention bill includes new workplace rules

The measure is expected to help guard physicians against injuries but also adds regulations for them to follow as employers

 

1998 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS)

Give information and site information for downloading public use data and documentation for the 1998 NHIS

178 kb pdf

Occupational Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogens; Needlestick and Other Sharps Injuries

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration is revising the Bloodborne Pathogens standard in conformance with the requirements of the Needlestick Safety and Prevention Act. This Act directs OSHA to revise the Bloodborne Pathogens standard to include new examples in the definition of engineering controls along with two new definitions; to require that Exposure Control Plans reflect how employers implement new developments in control technology; to require employers to solicit input from employees responsible for direct patient care in the identification, evaluation, and selection of engineering and work practice controls; and to require certain employers to establish and maintain a log of percutaneous injuries from contaminated sharps.

 

Occupational Risks Magazine

Gives information on how to underwrite those claims and calculate them

458 kb pdf

CDC report on occupational exposure to Blood Pathogens

Explanation of the reporting system and what to do

37 kb pdf

OSHA instructions for exposure

This instruction establishes policies and provides clarification to ensure uniform inspection procedures are followed when conducting inspections to enforce the Occupational Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogens Standard

1,297 kb pdf

Unaffordable medication

Testimony of Alan Sager on winning affordable medications for all Americans

27 kb pdf

Surveillance of occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens in health care workers: the Italian national programme

Health care workers (HCWs) face a serious risk of acquiring bloodborne infections, in particular hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), all of which are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In 1986 the coordinating centre of the Italian study on occupational risk of HIV Infection

 

National Surveillance System For Health Care Workers

Needlestick and other percutaneous injuries (PIs) pose the greatest risk of occupational transmission of bloodborne viruses to health-care workers (HCWs). The annual number of PIs sustained by U.S. HCWs have been estimated using a variety of methods and have ranged from 100,000-1,000,000.

 

The rate of transmission to susceptible health care workers

Gives probability for infection

 

Through the Looking Glass

Report from Canada on the results of acquiring HCV thru blood transfusions and the changes in lifestyle and standard of living

305 kb pdf

Work-related Death: A continuing Epidemic

Work-related illnesses and injuries kill approximately 1.1 million people per year. In 1992, an estimated 65,000 people in the United States died of occupational injuries or illness

71 kb pdf

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